Authentic materials in Chinese classroom: A survey study on learner perception
Authentic materials (AM) refer to language data produced in the process of real-life communication rather than for language teaching purposes. Many second language scholars believe AM bring benefits to language classrooms. However, there are concerns that due to difficulty vocabulary and structures contained in AM, using them may frustrate or demotivate learners. Chinese is one of the most difficult languages for American learners to learn, which may make it more challenging to incorporate AM into Chinese classes. Investigation into the perceptions of learners of Chinese as a foreign language (CFL learners) regarding the use of AM in Chinese classes will inform pedagogical suggestions to guide classroom instruction. However, thus far, an extremely limited number of studies has explored this issue. By collecting survey data from 145 CFL learners who studied in 12 universities and colleges in the U.S., this study answered the following research questions:1) How did the CFL learners generally perceive the effects of AM on their Chinese learning? 2) What factors related to learner’s perception of AM were revealed in the survey data? 3) Is there significant differences in learners’ perception between the group with classroom AM learning experience and those who had not have such experience? Descriptive statistic data showed that most CFL learners had positive views on AM. Principle component analysis revealed three main factors of learner perception of AM: Learning, Motivation & Engagement, and Frustration. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOV) revealed significant differences in the factor of Learning. CFL learners with classroom experience of AM expressed stronger beliefs of AM’s positive impacts on learning and they were also more inclined to include authentic materials in their Chinese class. Pedagogical suggestions will also be discussed in this presentation.
The Pedagogical Value of Films in Advanced-level Chinese Language Teaching
Watching movies benefits foreign language learning in many ways. This presentation investigates why and how to use movies as teaching materials in advanced-level Chinese classes. The researcher will discuss theoretical framework, instructional practice, and pedagogical design related to using contemporary Chinese films as teaching materials in language teaching. This presentation includes two parts: the linguistic and cultural values of the Chinese film in language teaching, and how to integrate movies in regular Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) classes in order to improve student language proficiency, cultural awareness, and critical thinking.
Film is a great means for integrated language training and culture study. Through watching Chinese movies, reading movie reviews, and making comments orally or in written language, students can improve their listening, reading, speaking, and writing competences in an integrated way. In addition to acquiring the colloquial conversations in movies, students can also learn some formal expressions from movie reviews and comments. Watching movies is also a good way to build contextual sensitivity while learning language. Understanding major cultural phenomena helps students construct a better understanding of China and as a result they can use language in a more culturally appropriate way.
This presentation starts with a discussion of the language abilities and competences of advanced-level CFL learners as described in the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) Proficiency Guidelines. The researcher then elaborates why it is beneficial to use Chinese movies as teaching materials after analyzing special needs and difficulties of advanced-level CFL learners. Taking CHIN 408, an advance-level CFL class offered at the University of North Carolina, as an example, the researcher provides a step-by-step demonstration on how to use movies for integrated language training. Lastly, criteria of movie selection for language teaching purpose are discussed.
An analytical research of major problem of Bilinguals for academic writing
English, as a global language, has become an irreplaceable part of the international trade market. The last 40 years have witnessed a rapid development of English education in Chinese universities which aims to cultivate more bilingual individuals for the property of China’s economy. The English education in China has made great achievements but also exposed many problems. To illustrate, poor English writing or academic writing is going to be taken as a focus for this paper, thereby aiming to discuss and analyse specific major writing problems of bilinguals who take Chinese as first language and English as second language.
News Discourse Analysis of Confucius Institute: A Diachronic Corpus-Based Study of Reports on U.S. Newspapers
Since the establishment of the first Confucius Institute in 2005, it has always adhere to the principle of promoting Chinese language and culture. Owing to its rapid development, it has received considerable worldwide attention. Hence, the current research is directly toward the investigation of reports which related with Confucius institute from the year of 2005-2019 on the basis of framework theory. Through searching the key word “Confucius Institute” in LexisNexis database, 180 articles constitute the self-built corpus Reports of Confucius Institute Corpus (RCIC). With the method of quantitative content analysis, the results demonstrate that the theme in terms of education of Chinese language and the cultural soft power appeared with the highest frequency, one of the explanations for this phenomenon is the increasing influence of China and national language in the world stage, especially in the United States; Concerning the total number of related reports, it is represented by the characteristics of rising-falling-rising, factors such as political factors and public policy may account for such fluctuation, for example, the 5.17 instruction; As regards the general emotional tendency, most reports on mainstream media show a positive attitude to Confucius Institute. Under the approach of qualitative investigation, the present study reveals that the reports of Confucius Institute are relatively fixed in terms of the analysis of its news schema; Additionally, the concrete differences of ideology of these two different nations are embodied by the related reports in the present study, which to a great extent can be the valid evidence of the importance of mutual understanding. As an empirical-based research, these findings may provide useful and practical insights for the interpretation of reports of Confucius Institute overseas, especially concerning how to strengthen the mutual understanding of cross-culture between China and the United States.
美国语言政策紧密围绕其国家战略，随着中国不断崛起，中美大国竞争进一步加剧，研究美国汉语语言地位具有充分的现实意义。本文从语言规划的视角，分析梳理美国汉语语言地位的发展现状以及发展脉络，梳理形成当前汉语语言地位的主要参与者角色。从语言学家Spolsky在其新著《语言管理》中的“语言管理理论”（Language Management Theory）理论中的语言域（Domain）视角，去认识和解读如基金会、政府、华人社区、学校等规划参与者在语言管理中扮演的角色作用。
Historical Interaction of Media and Populism in U.S.
Donald Trump may represent the latest successful combination of internet-based new media and populism. New media platforms are now a political battleground. Heavy investment by election campaigns and frequent appearances by politicians verify the significant role of new media in winning support, persuasion and mobilization. If now a politician does not interact with people on social media it can be interpreted as not being close to the people. This means the presence of new media in politics being a necessity or a “normal”. The case with Trump is that he continues to use twitter, among other social media platforms, as an operational part of his administration, hence effectively making it an almost unchecked element of his power. A politician who is close to the people but who wields unchecked power sounds a lot like a populist idea. New media and populism could be a mutually enhancive combination, as new power structure can be built along internet interpersonal relationship, going around the traditional political representation process. In history, populist politicians have valued media to proliferate messages with strong emotional appeal but maybe weaker senses that fits their target audience. Although “serious” media continue to exist, new types of media are lighter and easier to use in order to acquire readership, particularly to occupy time fragments and leisure time between more serious business. It therefore leads to a question: could the lightening media become a natural propaganda tool for populism? This study attempts to answer this question by looking at how historical populists have harnessed media, especially new kinds of media of the time. It tries to explore the following aspects: the populist preference of media, the consequence of media “lightness” and the media-related goals of populist politicians.
The Dynamics of Populism in the United States
In recent years, the specter of populism has wandered in the United States. Populism not only puts pressures on political institutions, tears apart societies, but also brings huge impacts on Western democracies. Research questions will focus on the rise of populism in America, and explore the dynamics of populism from multiple perspectives. The root cause of populism is the growing economic inequality which has triggered a series of social crises. Resentment is the fuse of populism. Trump's populist campaign pushed American populism to a climax. At the same time, the new Internet media is a combustion improver of populism, and it will have spillover effects on other countries. The dynamics of populism have different effects in the United States in different periods. I will closely examine such complex and challenging factors under evolving sociopolitical environments.
西安交通大学外国语学院 王玮 李蓓岚
A Comparative Study
of Pragmatic Vagueness in Chinese and American Diplomatic Language
Vagueness is the inherent attribute of language. Pragmatic Vagueness is commonly regarded as a crucial strategy to achieve certain purposes in the communication. It is generally acknowledged that diplomatic language needs to convey the information precisely; however, speakers in the diplomatic occasions are expected to be polite. Therefore, diplomatic language is involved many vague expressions in that the speaker considers the Politeness Principle first and thus violating the Cooperative Principle inevitably. This thesis, based on the discourses from the press conferences of Chinese Foreign Ministry and U.S. Department of State, discusses the differences, similarities and causes of pragmatic vagueness in Chinese and American diplomatic language and its pragmatic functions under the theoretical framework of Cooperative Principle, and Politeness Principle.
The study found that, both Chinese diplomatic language and American diplomatic language violate the Cooperative Principle and observe the Politeness Principle, while Chinese diplomatic language more obviously tends to observe the maxims of the Politeness Principle. To be specific, the violations of the four maxims of the CP in Chinese and American data are roughly similar. However, the occurring times of the violation of quality, quantity and relevance as well as the observances of maxims of tact, generosity, approbation, modesty and sympathy in Chinese data are more than those in American data. Moreover, the causes of the similarities and differences can be concluded as the characteristics of diplomatic language, the different cultures and different diplomatic policies. As for the functions of pragmatic vagueness in diplomatic language, they can be summarized as being polite, evading the disagreement, withholding the information, self-protection, maintaining the friendly relationship.
Through the analyses of the press briefings of Chinese Foreign Ministry and U.S. Department of State, this comparative study of vagueness is supposed to help people understand the features and the intensions of Chinese and American diplomatic language usages from a comprehensive perspective. Besides, it may enlighten the diplomats on the apprehension and utilization of vagueness, and on the defense of the rights and interests of the countries and people concerned.
A Study to Reflect the Political Apathy of High School Students of Bangladesh
西南交通大学马克思主义学院 Sudipto Sajol Kha
High school students (age 14-18) of Bangladesh are in high ground to accept the better of the state and the society due to their age and curiosity which shapes their moral. They are considered as the channel between the society and the future political culture of the state. This study shows that the minimal amount of high school students are interested in the recent political environment of Bangladesh and this creates a persistent political apathy. As a democratic country, Bangladesh has a wide range of political scopes. It is a matter of concern that Bangladesh’s very young high school students started to dislike the recent political environment. Because it is leading them to self-motivate themselves not to be involved in politics. Long term frustration over the morally poor political culture, a specific political apathy may put Bangladesh’s dynamic democracy in danger with probable weak leadership in future. Corruption, absence of credibility, lack of steps from the government and political violence really makes it hard for the high school students to decide in favor of politics. This study also tries to find out the causes behind this political apathy with relevant study data and analysis.
Reflections on Chinese and Western Historiographies
Both China and the West have long and rich historiographical traditions. In this paper I explore the ways in which Chinese and Western historiographies can be compared and contrasted to each other along certain thematic lines. Among the thematic issues considered are the perceived nature and patterns of the historical process; historical and cultural milieus for history writing; politics and the historical discipline; the making of the historian and the roles he plays; perceived nature and patterns of the historical process; purpose and objectivity in historical study; historical agency; as well as political and sociocultural history. The paper will also consider the pedagogical implications of the some of the issues identified above to reflect on studying and teaching historiography in a cross-cultural environment.
An Analysis of A Streetcar Named Desire
from the Perspective of Female Body and Femininity
In 1947, the American playwright Tennessee Williams published his masterpiece play A Streetcar Named Desire. The portrayal of the women in the play can be seen to be tragic. In the patriarchal society, women have only the right to be chosen, to be seen as angels or monsters. In such a society of unilateral ‘sexuality’ prevalence, women are imprisoned in cages, gradually strip off the nature of monsters. This play, by focusing on male violence against the female body, discipline, and bullying, shows the trauma experienced in the society dominated by the male voice. Nonetheless, although the male voice attaches derogation on female body and ego, women can still use their awakening body and identity to resist to gain the recognition of their own subjective consciousness.
A Postcolonial Perspective on Goldblatt’s Translation:
The Case of Life and Death Are Wearing Me Out
This article ‘A Postcolonial Perspective on Goldblatt’s Translation: The Case of Life and Death Are Wearing Me Out’ explores Howard Goldbatt’s translation of Chinese literature from the perspective of postcolonial theory. Goldblatt is an outstanding American Sinologist and the most productive translator of Chinese literatures who started his translation in 1978, and during the forty years he had translated over 60 works of more than 30 Chinese writers. He is famous for tranlasting The Red Sorghum, which won the 2012 Nobel Prize for Literature. Taking examples of his translation of Mo Yan’s Life and Death Are Wearing Me Out, the ideas that Goldblatt advanced in his essays, speeches and interviews, as well as some Chinese critics, professors and writers who concern self-colonialism, it analyses postcolonialism with the challenging concepts of “hybridity”, postcolonial translation theory and self-colonization; Goldblatt’s translation thoughts and his attitudes towards China and Chinese literature; as well as his translation strategies such as domestication and foreignization. This paper also discusses the previous views on the core issues of “faithfulness” and “unfaithfulness” in translation as well as the misunderstanding of two different cultures between China and America which occurs in literature translation. Goldblatt insists that ‘I translate, so I am’. He holds a passion for Chinese literature and he adores Chinese writers such as Mo Yan and Xiao Hong. Those findings may contribute to the mutual comprehension, frequent communication and active interaction between Chinese culture and American culture, and provide valuable insights for the future research of Chinese literature translation, especially concerning how great a role Howard Goldblatt has played in the process of Chinese literature “walking-out” and how does he function as a bridge across the cultures of two powers.
Cultural Default and its Translation Compensation Strategies from the Perspective of Relevance Theory—A Case Study of the Yao Naiqiang’ Version of the Scarlett Letter
As people from the same cultural background will normally reach a consensus to some tacit information in their culture, writers will omit some self-evident background knowledge or cultural common sense to improve communication efficiency when writing literary works, the phenomenon of which is called cultural default. However, in the process of literary translation, if the cultural default cannot be properly and effectively handled and compensated, it will cause difficulties for foreign target readers to understand the original text, thus hindering cross-cultural communication. Therefore, relevance theory, the emerging theory with cognition and communication as its core, shed new light on the rendering of cultural default.
Relevance translation theory is put forward by Gutt, who regards translation as a kind of verbal communicative behavior and it includes the double ostensive-inferential process among the author, the translator and the readers. Therefore the translator has the responsibility of inferring the informative intention and representing it clearly for target readers.
The Scarlett Letter, a masterpiece of the American novelist Nathaniel Hawthorne, has been hailed as one of the most important books in the history of American romantic literature. Although the novel is very popular among scholars at home and abroad, few of them have analyzed the cultural default compensation strategies the translation versions employed. Therefore, based on the relevance translation theory, this paper takes the Chinese version of the Scarlett Letter by Yao Naiqiang, whose version has long been acclaimed as an authoritative translated texts in China, as a case study to explore the translator’s strategy of compensating cultural default. By comparing the examples of cultural default element in the Scarlett Letter with Yao’s translation version, the paper analyzes what compensation strategies of Yao has employed and how does he manages to deal with the cultural default based on the relevance theory. This paper finds that the translator has mainly adopted such translation strategies as literal translation, literal translation with footnotes, transliteration with footnotes, contextual amplification, adaptation, as well as emission to compensate the cultural default in the Chinese version.
The author employs the relevance theory to analyze the compensation strategies of cultural default in the Scarlett Letter, aiming to prove that relevance theory is powerfully interpretable in tackling the cultural phenomenon in the literary works. In addition, this paper offers a good comprehension to the relevance theory and provides some effective compensation strategies for cultural default to gap the cultural misunderstandings and promote the cultural exchanges between countries.
On Edna Pontellier’s Freedom-pursing in Kate Chopin’s The Awakening Through Chuang Tzu’s Thoughts of Freedom
Kate Chopin is a well-known American writer. The Awakening is her representative work and also a classic of feminist literature. The previous studies mainly look into feminist perspective or analysis of the deconstruction and construction of the heroine's self-awareness, subjective consciousness and even sexual consciousness, but only a few of them explore Edna Pontellier’s experience of freedom-pursing. Furthermore, for most critics the issues seem to be whether Edna’s suicide should be read as failure, tragedy, or triumph. It seems to me that the appropriate question to ask about Edna’s is not whether her behavior is justified, but what is revealed in it. On the basis of Chuang Tzu’s thoughts of freedom, this thesis would explore Edna’s experience of the pursuit of freedom as well as her suicide. There are five parts in this thesis. Part One is an introduction to the previous studies on The Awakening and the research purposes and structure of the thesis. Part Two outlines Chuang Tzu’s thoughts on freedom, covering the undertaker of freedom—three ideal personality and the presentation of freedom. Part Three focuses on Edna’s process of freedom- pursing in accordance with Chuang Tzu’s thoughts on freedom, including her liberation from social fame, transcendence from material merit and return to original self. Part Four discusses Edna’s final death as a state of perplexity of the contradiction between the oppression of patriarchal society and the spiritual freedom of self-awakening. Part Five is a conclusion to the thesis.
A Post-Colonial Perspective on the Issue of Identity in The Joy Luck Club
Amy Tan as an eminent Chinese-American female writer, has contributed a great deal to the differential between Chinese culture and American culture. The Joy Luck Club is the first masterpiece of Amy Tan. As a matter of fact, the name The Joy Luck Club was originated from a mahjong-playing club by immigrant Chinese mothers. It mainly elaborates the relationship between four pairs of mothers and daughters caused by their collision and compatibility of two different cultures. Due to the collision of the two cultures, they struggle for their respective cultural identity. This essay aims to explore their individual issue of identity of both Chinese mothers and American daughters, from the perspective of post-colonialism. In the mixed context of multi-culture, daughters and mothers are confused about it. Post-colonialism, as one of the most noticeable schools of cultural criticism at the turn of century, deserved to be delved into. This paper reveals that four mothers have strong personality with traditional Chinese values, while daughters are regarded as marginal person. Mothers are filled with characteristics of traditional Chinese women and as well as the Chinese mothers. To the contrary, daughters, living in a melting-pot, are confused about their own identity. However, these findings show that in such a converged environment, people are still strongly conscious about their own identity. This paper shed light on the discussion on difference between Chinese culture and American culture, so as to benefit intercultural communication. What is more, it can provide a significant reference for the future literature research on The Joy Luck Club.
The Embodiment of the Local Culture in Goldblatt’s Translation of Red Sorghum
Translation exists whenever there is cultural communication. Since the reform and opening-up, China has absorbed many works from the western world, but exported a few local literary works. Howard Goldblatt, an American translator, has made a great contribution to the spreading of Chinese works, especially the works written by Mo Yan. The translations of Goldblatt help Mo a lot to win Nobel Prize. In his translation, Goldblatt makes use of his comprehensive knowledge of Chinese tradition to balance the smoothness of reading and essence of novel. This paper tries to summarize how Goldblatt translates local cultural elements in Red Sorghum. In doing so, some useful insights for managing cultural differences between China and America are expected.
Teaching English Literature in America: A Chinese Professor’s Perspective
How often do you come across a foreign professor or an English-speaking professor teaching Chinese literature in a Chinese college classroom? Probably not often or even never. Why? Because that is just how things are done in China. How often do you come across a Chinese professor teaching English literature in American college classroom? Probably not often but NOT never. This means that there are a few, though not many, Chinese professors teaching English literature in American college classroom. Luckily, I am one of them. People have asked me: how can you teach English literature to American students? How do they react to you as a professor? Do they respect you? Do you like what you do? My paper presentation will share my experience teaching English literature in the English Department at Purdue University Fort Wayne, USA, including the challenges I have gone through.
From a Critical Reflection on Current Chinese Studies to a Self-Reflexive and Dialogical Chinese Studies
Since the poststructuralist and postmodernist theories were widely applied to Chinese studies in the West in late 1980s, basic concepts and assumptions of traditional sinology and the Cold War-style Chinese studies as an area studies have been contested. While this poststructuralist and postmodern approach characterized by Rey Chow as “fundamental problematization of referentiality” has expanded the boundaries of Chinese studies by deconstructing the essentialist and monolithic understandings of Chinese ethnicity, nationality and language, it also incurs criticisms from two opposite directions. The more theory-minded China scholars (Gloria Davies, Elaine Jeffreys, etc.) criticize the existing Chinese studies for being still too much concerned with producing knowledge about China to make any substantial contributions to broader disciplinary knowledge and theoretical debate. By contrast, the more area-based China scholars (Mingdong Gu, Philips Huang, etc.) accuse existing Chinese studies of misusing western theories to do justice to the complexity of Chinese history, experience and text. What both the theory-minded China scholars and the area-based China scholars are lacking is a respectful listening and a productive dialogue between their respective research approaches. To address the limits and bridge the gaps between the seemingly contrastive theory-oriented Chinese studies and the area-based Chinese studies, this presentation proposes a self-reflexive and dialogical Chinese studies. Such a self-reflexive and dialogical approach needs the two existing distinctive Chinese studies models not only to learn from each other specific concepts and theses, but also to use the other’s fundamental assumption and problematic to self-reflexively challenge and enrich one’s own to form a more inclusive and more integrative theoretical framework, which can produce both well-informed knowledge about China and make notable contributions to theoretical debate and disciplinary advancement.
The Dissemination and Influence of American Musicals in China
The musical is a comprehensive theatrical performance art that integrates music, dance, dialogues, performances and other forms, which has a history of more than 100 years. As an important part of American culture, American musicals have been influential in China since they were first introduced into China in 1987, after more than 30 years of dissemination.
Taking the Broadway classic musicals as an example, the author of this thesis discusses the following five aspects: an introduction of American musicals represented by Broadway, the 30-year history of American musicals spreading in China, the influence of American musicals on Chinese musicals, the impact and integration of Chinese culture and American culture represented by American musicals, the problems faced by Chinese musicals and the solutions. It is helpful to promote intercultural communication between China and the United States by exploring the collision and integration of Sino-US cultural exchanges through the dissemination and influence of a unique cultural carrier – American musicals in China.